Russia and Ukraine is an important exporters of oil, natural gas, metals, fertilizers, rare gases and other industrial raw materials. Affected by the further intensification of the tension of the war, the global market has become more worried about the supply of the Nickel-based Super Alloys, and panic spreads in the futures market. Prices of commodities such as aluminum and nickel are at recent highs on concerns that supplies will fall. Russia accounts for 49 percent of global exports of nickel, 42 percent of palladium, 26 percent of aluminum and 13 percent of platinum, and is a significant exporter of steel and copper. Palladium is an important metal for sensors and memory. In addition, Russia is the world's largest exporter of nitrogen fertilizer, the second largest exporter of potash fertilizer, and the third-largest exporter of phosphate fertilizer. Ukraine is also an important producer of nitrogen fertilizer. Russia's natural gas supply also has a significant impact on the global fertilizer industry and Nickel-based Super Alloys industry, especially in Europe. The price of the product name will also fluctuate to some extent. Russia carries out crude gas separation, and Ukraine is responsible for refined exports. Ukraine supplies 70% of the world's neon, 40% of krypton and 30% of xenon. These three gases are the materials used to make chips.
The creep rupture strength can be a good indication that the creep rupture life/γ-initial fraction diagram of each alloy series is different, but each series may have a maximum value or exceed 75% (volume) in the vicinity. This means that the creep rupture life depends partly on the hardening of the solid solution and partly on the hardening of the γ-prime precipitation. When Cr in γ'is replaced by W and Ta, the maximum solid solution hardening will be achieved. In addition, in order to obtain maximum precipitation hardening, a gamma prime fraction will be obtained. In some Ni-based superalloys, the γ-primary fraction of the actual alloy at 1000ºC may be less than the design value.
Tensile properties The tensile properties of sample solutions aged under various conditions at 900ºC have been observed. Obviously, these changes can be well approximated by the linear function of the gamma prime fraction. The results obtained from other series of alloys show that the linearity is maintained in the range of γ-prime fraction of 50% to 80% (volume), which is different from the case of creep rupture strength. The effect of solution temperature is also linear. A higher solution temperature gives a higher yield strength. The lower the solution temperature, the greater the tensile elongation, but this trend no longer works below a certain temperature. The solution treatment below 1080ºC has no beneficial effect on the tensile elongation. For the effect of solid solution hardening and precipitation hardening, it is obvious that W is the most effective method of solid solution hardening, and Ta (a γ-primer forming agent) is less effective than W as a solid solution hardening element.
The crucible test was used to evaluate the resistance to corrosion resistance. A piece of alloy (diameter 6-8 mm, height 3-5 mm) in a salt mixture (Na2SO4-25%NaCl) was kept in the air at 900ºC for 20 hours. After all the scale is removed, the resistance is quantitatively determined by the metal loss. In terms of morphology, thermal corrosion can be divided into three types. Type I: Corrosion layer composed of Cr sulfide, Ni sulfide and porous oxide, Type II: Thin and compact Cr2O3 corrosion layer, there is a small amount of sulfide or no sulfide in the matrix, Type III: It is oxidized by three layers Corrosion layer composed of Cr2O3, TiO2 and Al2O3 from the outside to the inside, a small amount of chromium-rich sulfide is dispersed in the matrix. Regression analysis was carried out on 42 alloys that produced Type I corrosion. The results show that Hf-doped alloys with high Cr and Ti content (the most preferred in γ-primary precipitation hardening alloys), and the addition of W, Ta or Mo is an essential element to increase high-temperature strength. Extremely harmful to thermal corrosion.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has affected economies and chemical companies in many countries around the world. Measures such as extending holidays and resuming work were taken to control the development of the epidemic, and the normal operation of some chemical enterprises was also affected to some extent.
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