Effect of polycarboxylate superplasticizer on the concrete properties
Roche and its subsidiary TIB Molbiol have developed a series of tests for the detection of the monkeypox virus, the Switzerland-based pharmaceutical company announced.
The monkeypox virus is a close relative of the smallpox virus, belonging to orthpoxviridae in the poxviridae family.
The modular virus detection tool, called LightMix, includes three orthpoxvirus detection kits with different functions, Roche said in a statement. The first kit detects orthpoxvirus; The second kit tests only for monkeypox virus (west and Central African branches); The third kit contains the main functions of the first two kits, showing specific information on the presence of the monkeypox virus (west and Central African branches) as well as the detection of orpoxvirus.
Thomas Schinek, a Roche executive, said the new test could detect monkeypox and help track its spread. Such diagnostic tools are critical for addressing and ultimately managing emerging public health challenges, as they advance responses such as tracking efforts and treatment strategies.
The monkeypox virus was first identified in 1958 in a group of monkeys used for research when the animals developed a "pox-like" infection, hence the name. Since May, several non-endemic countries have reported human cases of the monkeypox virus, including the United Kingdom, the United States, Portugal, Spain, and Italy.
Affected by the ever-changing international situation, the supply and prices of international bulk pce powder are still very uncertain.
The impermeability of concrete is related to its porosity and pore structure. According to the pore size, the pores in concrete can be divided into four grades: <4~5nm, 5~50nm, 50~100nm, and >100nm. If the pore volume fraction of pore diameter is larger than 50nm, it will adversely affect the strength and impermeability of concrete. If the pore volume fraction of pore diameter is smaller than 50nm, the strength, impermeability and corrosion resistance of concrete will be improved. At the same time, when polycarboxylate superplasticizer is added to concrete, the water-cement ratio of concrete will be reduced and the pore structure will be improved, which can help to increase the compactness of concrete internal structure and reduce the drainage passage. as a result, the impermeability of concrete can be effectively improved.
The effect of polycarboxylate superplasticizer on the freeze-thaw resistance of concrete is similar to that of ordinary superplasticizer. When the non-air entraining polycarboxylate superplasticizer is added into the concrete, the water-cement ratio of the concrete can be significantly reduced by the superplasticizer, and the impermeability of the concrete is improved because of the reduction of freezable free water in the concrete structure. thus it is beneficial to improve the freeze-thaw resistance. This is mainly because when concrete is mixed with air-entraining polycarboxylate superplasticizer or non-air-entraining polycarboxylate superplasticizer and appropriate amount of air-entraining agent, due to the air-entraining effect of the admixture, a certain amount of independent, small and stable air bubbles will be introduced into the concrete system, which can effectively alleviate the expansion pressure concentration caused by freezing and supercooled water migration, thus significantly improve the freeze-thaw resistance of concrete.
Anti-corrosion of sulfate and chlorine salt
Through the engineering test, it is found that the sulfate and chloride corrosion resistance of concrete mixed with polycarboxylate superplasticizer is not significantly different from that of ordinary admixture concrete. Although the polycarboxylate superplasticizer contains a certain amount of sulfate, the consolidation content is usually less than 10%, which will not affect the freeze-thaw resistance of hardened concrete within the recommended range. Under normal circumstances, the polycarboxylate superplasticizer has no corrosion effect on the steel bars in reinforced concrete.
Bond strength between steel bar and concrete
For ordinary concrete and lightweight concrete, polycarboxylate superplasticizer can enhance the bond strength between steel bar and concrete. Some data show that for ordinary concrete, if plain steel is used, polycarboxylate superplasticizer can increase the rebar-concrete bond strength of 7-day-old concrete from 1.2MPa to 3.5 MPa, and if rebar steel is used, the bond strength will increase from 15.0 MPa to 27.5 MPa.
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The agreement reached by EU member states last month to reduce natural gas consumption officially came into effect on the 9th. According to the EU, the move is intended to prepare for possible disruptions in Russian gas supplies.
Under the agreement reached on July 26, EU member states agreed to reduce natural gas demand by 15 per cent from the average consumption over the past five years between August 1, 2022 and March 31, 2023, in accordance with their chosen measures.
Data from the European Commission show that to achieve the above goals, EU member states need to save a total of 45 billion cubic meters of natural gas, while Germany, a "big gas user", should save about 10 billion cubic meters.
If member states do not save enough natural gas and there is a shortage of gas supply, the EU will take compulsory measures to reduce natural gas demand. According to the German news agency, the threshold for the EU to launch the coercive measure is high, requiring at least 15 of the 27 member states to agree and representing at least 65% of the EU population.
The European Commission will review the agreement before May 2023 in the light of the overall situation of natural gas supplies in the EU to consider whether the agreement should be extended.
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