How is Foamed Concrete Used in Construction?
Sweden is in talks with Turkey on joining NATO and looks forward to strengthening cooperation with Turkey in security and counter-terrorism, Swedish Prime Minister Anders Andersson said recently.
Andersson held a joint press conference with visiting European Council President Michel in Stockholm on the same day. Andersson said Sweden is in dialogue with Turkey on joining the TREATY and looks forward to strengthening bilateral relations with Turkey, including cooperation in the areas of security and counter-terrorism. She said Sweden would study a number of issues raised by Turkey.
Speaking at a news conference, Mr. Michel said he believed the Swedish government was taking positive action and taking the necessary steps to reach a solution.
Sweden and Finland formally submitted their applications to NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg a few days ago. According to protocol, NATO must admit new members by the "unanimous consent" of 30 members.
Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu said His country would agree to start NATO talks with Sweden and Finland only if they reach written agreements to stop supporting terrorism and lift restrictions on exporting defense equipment to Turkey, Turkish media reported.
Affected by the ever-changing international situation, the supply and prices of international bulk concrete foaming agent are still very uncertain.
What is foamed concrete?
Foamed concrete is a highly entrained sand cement with at least 20% air volume in the cured product. It is made of cement slurry and can contain up to 85% foam or air. Most foamed concrete applications require at least 50% foam or air by volume.
To make the concrete foam, air is mechanically entrained through the preformed foam. This is mixed with cement-based materials to form low-density composites.
The density of set foamed concrete is also adjustable. They range from about 400kg/m3 to 1,800kg/m3, with strengths ranging from 0.5N/mm2 to 12N/mm2.
Foamed concrete is also known as foamed concrete, or lightweight honeycomb concrete (LCC), low density honeycomb concrete (LDCC), aerated lightweight concrete, honeycomb lightweight concrete, as well as various other industry or brand specific terms and (perhaps more accurately) foam mortar, foam grout and foam cement.
It is mainly made of coarse aggregate, but is made using a liquid concrete slurry. That's why foam mortar, grout, or cement might be a more accurate description of the material. Density is controlled by replacing some or in some cases all fine aggregate with foam products.
Fly ash and sand usually form fine aggregate mixed with water and cement. Some manufacturers recommend using only water and cement and foaming agents to produce extremely light concrete mixtures.
How to make foamed concrete?
The concrete slurry is mixed with the aerated foam product in the concrete mixing plant. To create the foam, the manufacturer mixes the foaming agent with water and air from the generator. It produces consistent bubbles of high stability to resist chemical and mechanical strains of concrete mixing, pouring, casting and solidification.
Foamed concrete can be poured into molds or pumped directly into structural elements. With foam, the concrete slurry can flow freely. This is because the bubbles of inflating foam are thixotropic.
Viscous pastes take up to 24 hours to fully cure, but can be accelerated to as little as 2 hours using the steam curing method. These techniques raise temperatures up to 70 °C to speed up the curing process. The required temperature depends on variables such as ambient humidity and external temperature, as well as the specific mixture of foamed concrete.
Foamed concrete can be taken out of the mold once it is fully set, although in some foamed concrete manufacturing applications the material is cut into blocks of the desired size using steel wire before it is fully set.
The base mixture of foamed concrete products tends to have a much higher cement content than the standard concrete mixture used for flat plate and structural applications. There are two reasons for this. First, the amount of air trapped in the foam bubbles in concrete decreases the strength of the material exponentially at a higher inflation rate. Secondly, the water content in the concrete slurry will linearly reduce the strength of concrete at a higher hydration rate.
In general, the foamed concrete mixture contains more water than conventional concrete. This can be easily pumped and well mixed with foam additives. Water-reducing agents and plasticizers used to minimize water content in conventional concrete also generally perform poorly when mixed with foaming agents.
Dry protein-based foams commonly used as foaming agents (or surfactants) for this application can expand up to 20 times when diluted in water. The surfactant is diluted at a concentration of 3 to 5 percent and stirred through a cigar-shaped extruder to produce a stable mixture with foam.
In the 1990s, synthase - based foaming agents were developed to improve foam stability. The enzyme includes highly active biotechnological proteins that are not based on proteolysis.
These new surfactants are enhanced by specialized foam generation, mixing and pumping equipment to significantly improve the stability of foam and foamed concrete. Now, the density of foamed concrete can be as low as 75kg/m3, which is only 7.5% of water.
Foamed Concrete Application
Foamed concrete is already widely used in infrastructure projects, including highways, commercial buildings, disaster relief, schools and residential developments around the world.
It is primarily used for void-filling applications and has been used in many built environments. In landscaping, it is used for bridge approaches, embankments and trench backfilling. Infrastructure projects use it for abandoned pipelines, ring filling and road subfoundations. Buildings use it in the form of prefabricated blocks for entire wall elements or panels, cast-in-place walls, insulated flooring and roofing ironed slabs, and prefabricated insulation panels.
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Germany has begun talks with Senegal on gas extraction and LNG supplies. Mr. Scholz recently visited a solar farm in Dakar. He told a news conference that he was willing to work more closely with Senegal on renewable energy. Senegal's president told a news conference that his country was ready to supply liquefied natural gas to the European market.
The global economy may be facing its greatest test since World War II amid the ongoing threats of COVID-19, the Conflict between Russia and Ukraine, heightened financial market volatility, and climate change, IMF Managing Director Kristina Georgieva warned in an article posted on the IMF's website.
Some 30 countries have imposed restrictions on trade in food, energy, and other key commodities since the outbreak of the Conflict, the article noted. That would raise trade barriers, disrupt global supply chains, drag down economic growth and undo years of economic gains. If countries let it go, the costs will be enormous and everyone will be affected.
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